A permalink, or permanent link, is a URL that points to a specific blog or forum entry after it has passed from the front page to the archives.
The Permalink always points the that specific post in the internet.
Here’s a video explanation.
CPanel, (control panel), is your personal “dashboard” on the hosting site.
cPanel is used in conjunction with WebHost Manager, (Go daddy’s CPanel). WHM provides administrative control on your hosting site.
You use CPanel to create individual accounts, add domains to your server, manage hosting features, and performing basic system and control panel maintenance.